What are the Hardware Components of a Computer?

By | April 18, 2021

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Hardware Components of a Computer:

A computer is an electromechanical machine used for performing arithmetic and logic operations. The computer consists of both electronic and electromechanical components. The electronics components include the Integrated chips present in the motherboard and other components.

The electromechanical component includes the motors in the Hard drive, Fans, etc. A personal computer can be used for various applications like word processing, desktop publishing, accounting, database management, etc. The different hardware components of a computer include the followings:

  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • System Unit
  • Mass Storage Device
What are the Hardware Components of a Computer

Input Devices

Input Devices are one of the hardware components that used to provide input to the computer system for processing. Any device, which is used to feed data to the computer, is an Input Device. Examples for input devices include a keyboard, mouse trackballs, joystick, scanner, light pens, etc.

Input Devices


The keyboard is an input device used to input characters, numbers, and special characters. If you type any character such as A-Z, number 0-9, a special character such as @#$%^&*()!~ all are done from the keyboard.


A Mouse is an input peripheral device, which is used in Graphic User Interface (GUI) environment. It is possible to open, close, copy, paste or do any formatting operations easily with the help of a mouse.

What is a Mouse? State the Different types of Mouse explain them


A Scanner is an input device. it can scan the information both text and graphics and send it to the processor for processing. The flatbed type of scanner is the most commonly used scanner.

Light Pen

Light Pen is a pencil-like input device. When a light pen is activated a light from the light pen is in contact with the illuminated spot on the screen and electrical energy is generated which is then sent as input to the system. it helps the graphic designer to locate the position exactly on the screen.

Output Devices

Output Devices are peripheral devices, which are employed to get the output from the computer. The result of the processed data is obtained by using output devices. Printers, Plotters, and monitors are some examples of output devices. The monitor is used to display the output of the processing that is performed.

Output devices


A monitor is used to display the processed result. It is most important output device.


The output may be a soft copy or a hard copy of the result. The printer provides the hard copy. The printer can be broadly classified into two, namely, impact printers and non-impact printers.

In Impact Printer, there is direct contact between the paper and head. Eg. Dot matrix printer. In a non-impact printer, there is no direct contact between the paper and the head. Eg Ink Jet Printer.

System Unit

The System Unit consists of many components like the motherboard, CPU, Coprocessor, Memory, System Bus, Expansion Bus slots, BIOS ROM, Chipset, and other jumpers and connectors for connecting the front panel display LEDs, Power supply unit.

System Unit of computer hardware


Motherboard is main board in computer. It hols the CPU, and the other components in a computer. It is placed safely and securely inside the computer case.

What is the Motherboard in Computer? Components and definition of Motherboard with Diagram

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit is also termed a processor is considered as the brain of a computer. It is an electronic component with millions of transistors present in them. The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logic operations.

The instructions given by the user are stored in Memory. The CPU reads the instructions from the Memory and then decides on the operation that needs to be performed on the task, executes the instructions, stores the result, and provides the output.


Memory is device used to store information in the computer. Memory used in PC can be broadly classified into two parts Primary Memory and Secondary Memory.

Primary Memory is used to store the programs that are being currently executed and the data which is used for processing. Eg. RAM and ROM. Secondary memory is used to store Programs, Files, Audio videos, Files. Eg. Hard Disk, Pendrive, etc.

Expansion cards or Interface cards

The expansion card is a Printer Circuit Board, Which can be placed on the motherboard in the expansion slots. It is used to grant access to various peripheral devices or features which is not inbuilt in the motherboard. Some examples of Interface cards are the Network card Interface, Accelerated Graphics Adapter, and sound cards.

Power Supply

The Power supply part is the most significant component of a computer. The Power supply Unit in the PC is called Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS). SMPS used to convert Alternating current into Direct Supply.

Mass Storage

A storage device is used to store a large amount of information like Operating systems, Application Programs, Data Files in a computer. Some examples of secondary storage devices include the Mass storage device like hard Disk Drive, SSD, Pen Drive, etc.

Hard Disk

The Hard Disk Drive is a magnetic storage device, it is used to store a large amount of Data in the Pcs. Hard Disk Drive used for store Operating System, HD Video, Large Files and Folder, etc.


A Pendrive is Flash Memory data storage device integrated with a USB. The device is small, Lightweight, removable and rewritable. The types of uses the USM mass storage standard, supported by Operating System.

A Pendrive consists of a small printed circuit board encased in the robust plastic or metal casing, which enable user to carry the Pendrive in his Pocket.

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