In this article we will know about, top 9 common Network connectivity devices, they hook up to that are commonly found on today’s networks.
- Network Interface Card (NIC)
Network Interface Card is one of the most Common Network Connectivity Devices because we can’t think about a Network without of Network Interface Card (NIC). NIC used to connect your computer to the network to communicate with Networking devices. It provides the physical, electrical, and electronic connections to the network media.
The NIC works on the OSI module of the Physical layer and Data link layer because the MAC address resides on the Data Link layer. Today almost all of the Laptop and computer is inbuilt of NIC card. Some NIC cards on Notebook also connected from a PC card slot or USB port.
NICs today usually have one, two, or more LEDs; one, usually green, is called a link
light, indicating that an Ethernet connection has been established with the device on the
other end of the cable, and it flickers when traffic is being passed back or forth. The other usually indicates the speed of the connection: 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps.
A hub is a Common Network Connectivity Device that uses as a centralized device to communicate with two or more network devices. A Hub operates on the OSI model Physical layer and Networking Start Topology.
When a user sends data to the network, the hub transmits that data by broadcasting the MAC address of the destination in the frame and delivered the data to the destination Host where match the Mac address.
There are two types of Hub:-
- Active Hub:- In This type of Hub, you need to regenerate the signals as Repeater and then after sending them to destinations. If you are using Active Hub then you should need an external Power supply.
- Passive Hub:- This type of Hub received the signals from the host and directly as the same delivered to destinations. In Pasiiave Hub you do not require an External Power supply.
3. Bridge:- Bridge is one of the most Common Network Connectivity Devices that use to connects two network segments together. The main function of a Bridge is to Keep traffic separately on either side of the Bridge, breaking of Collison domains. The Bridge is working on the OSI module of the Data Link Layer.
A Bridge has two ports one port used for incoming signals and another port used for outgoing signals. If you are sending any data from one location to another location Bridge first verify the destination MAC address for destination then after delivered.
A Bridge is too useful for increase the network length and prevents to bandwidth waste. The main reasons you would place a bridge in your network would be to connect two segments together or to divide a
busy network into two segments.
4. Switch:- In the Modern age of Computer networks we can’t think about Networks without the Switch. The switch uses to connected multiple computers together to communicate with each other. The switch works on the OSI module of the Data Link Layer and Network layer.
A switch is also called Intelligent Device of Computer Network because the switch has Memory that stores all the Network Hosts information on the address Table that maintains the host communication port on the switch. A Network switch creates a separate collision domain for each switch port.
For example- If you have Four computers A, B, C & D on four switch Ports, A and B can transfer data back and forth, while C & D also does so simultaneously, and the two conversations will not interface with one other.
The main benefits of Switch are followings-
- High-speed Data speed.
- Full duplex communication.
- Low latency.
- Dedicated communication between devices.
5. Router: – Router is a common network connectivity device that use to communicate two different network devices. The router operates on OSI of a module of Network Layer to communicate with each other Networks.
The router having software that allows a router to move data from one network to another. To create a route, the Router creates a table called Routing Table that helps send data from one network to another.
The Router use two types of Protocol to transfer data from one location to another location on Network-
- Routed Protocol:- The routed protocol used to define the logical addressing of devices to carrying of data. In this type of Protocol need to manually assign an IP address of Network devices.
- Routing Protocol:- Routing Protocol used to path deamination of a router and update the routing table. Routing Protocol used to defined the RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSFC protocol, etc.
The main components of Router are followings-
6. Firewall: A Firewall is a common network connectivity device that use to prevent External attacks and managing the Internet. A firewall Operates on the OSI module of the Network layer to communicate with them.
A Firewall prevents external Network virus attach, Hacking, stop spyware, and promotes privacy. In a computer network, a Firewall is too important for the security of concerns.
A firewall is too important for managing the Internet. If you have one or more internet connections then you can easily handle them and operate with fewer minutes of downtime. A firewall also allows users to monitor the user activity defining the privacy and policy of the Internet.
7. IDS/IPS/HIDS: Instruction Detection Systems (IDS) and Instructions preventions systems are common networks connectivity devices. IDS/ IPS are network security appliances that monitor networks and packets for malicious activity.
Instruction Detection System is considered to monitor mode and records tell about the problem and any threats found. Instructions preventions system operate in real-time to operate threats as they occur on Networks.
Host-Based IDS (HIDS), the software runs on one computer to detect abnormalities on that system alone by monitoring applications, events log, and system log, not by directly monitoring network traffic.
8. Access Point: Access Point (AP) is one of the latest network connectivity devices via client can access the Network through wireless signals. Access Point Operate on OSI module layer 2 or Data link layer.
Access Point is just a Hub that defined the secured password and Pool of IP address via user can connect on the network to access the Internet.
9. Wireless Range Extender: Wireless Range Extender is a Network device that use to extended wireless frequency frequency or channel and receive the signal as a station would and then transmit it in the direction you desire to clients that are out of reach of the original AP